Selected Publications

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J. H. (2021). When language  outgrows them: Comprehension of ambiguous sentences in children with normal hearing and children with hearing loss. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi., 141, 110514. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2020.110514.

Lowenstein, J. H. & Nittrouer, S. (2020). The devil in the details can be hard to spot: Malapropisms and children with hearing loss. Lang. Speech Hear. Serv. Schools, 52, 335-353.. DOI: 10.1044/2020_LSHSS-20-00033.

Nittrouer, S. (2020). The duality of patterning in language and its relationship to reading in children with hearing loss. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 5, 1400-1409. DOI: 10.1044/2020_PERSP-20-00029.  

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J. H., & Antonelli, J. (2020). Parental language input to children with hearing loss: Does it matter in the end?. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 63, 234-258. DOI: 10.1044/2019_JSLHR-19-00123.  

Lowenstein, J. H., Cribb, C., Shell, P., Yuan, Y., & Nittrouer, S. (2019). Children’s suffix effects for verbal working memory reflect phonological coding and perceptual grouping. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 183, 276-294. DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2019.03.003.

Lowenstein, J. H. & Nittrouer, S. (2019). Perception-production links in children’s speech. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res., 62, 853-867. DOI: 10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-18-0178.

Nittrouer, S. (2019). Ending the Lottery. Florida Law Review Forum, 71(1), 133-144. 

Nittrouer, S., Krieg, L. M., & Lowenstein, J. H. (2018). Speech recognition in noise by children with and without dyslexia: How is it related to reading? Res. Dev. Disabil. 77, 98-113. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2018.04.014

Nittrouer, S., Muir, M., Tietgens, K., Moberly, A. C., & Lowenstein, J. H. (2018). Development of phonological, lexical, and syntactic abilities in children with cochlear implants across the elementary grades. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 61, 2561-2577. DOI: 10.1044/2018_JSLHR-H-18-0047

Nittrouer, S., Caldwell-Tarr, A., Low, K. E., & Lowenstein, J. H. (2017). Verbal working memory in children with cochlear implants. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 60, 3342-3364. DOI: 10.1044/2017_JSLHR-H-16-0474.  

Moberly, A. C., Harris, M. S., Boyce, L. & Nittrouer, S. (2017). Speech recognition in adults with cochlear implants: The effects of working memory, phonological sensitivity, and aging. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 60, 1046-1061. DOI: 10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-16-0119.

Nittrouer, S., & Caldwell-Tarr, A., (2016). Language and literacy skills in children with cochlear implants: Past and present findings. In Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: Learning and the Brain. N. Young and K. Iler Kirk (eds.), Springer (New York).

Nittrouer, S. (2016). Integrated Language Intervention for Children with Hearing Loss. In Pediatric Cochlear Implantation: Learning and the Brain. N. Young and K. Iler Kirk (eds.), Springer (New York.)

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J. H., Wucinich, T., & Moberly, A. C. (2016). Verbal working memory in older adults: The roles of phonological capacities and processing speed. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 59, 1520-1532. DOI: 10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-15-0404

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J. H., & Holloman, C. (2016). Early predictors of phonological and morphosyntactic skills in second graders with cochlear implants. Res. Dev. Disabil. 55, 143-160. DOI: 10.1016/j.ridd.2016.03.020

Nittrouer, S. (2016). Beyond early intervention: Supporting children with CIs through elementary school. Otol. Neurotol. 37, e43-e49. DOI: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000000906

Moberly, A. C., Lowenstein, J. H., & Nittrouer, S. (2016). Word recognition variability with cochlear implants: The degradation of phonemic sensitivity. Otol. Neurotol. 37, 470-477. DOI: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000001001

Moberly, A. C., Lowenstein, J. H., & Nittrouer, S. (2016). Early bimodal stimulation benefits language acquisition for children with cochlear implants. Otol. Neurotol. 37, 24-30. DOI: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000000871

Moberly, A. C., Lowenstein, J. H., & Nittrouer, S. (2016). Word recognition variability with cochlear implants: “Perceptual attention” versus “auditory sensitivity”. Ear. Hear. 37, 14-26. DOI: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000204

Nittrouer, S., Kuess, J., & Lowenstein, J. H. (2015). Speech perception of sine-wave signals by children with cochlear implants. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 2811-2822. DOI: 10.1121/1.4919316.

Nittrouer, S., Tarr, E., Wucinich, T., Moberly, A. C., & Lowenstein, J. H. (2015). Measuring the effects of spectral smearing and enhancement on speech recognition in noise for adults and children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 2004-2014. DOI: 10.1121/1.4916203

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J. H. (2015). Weighting of acoustic cues to a manner distinction by children with and without hearing loss. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 58, 1077-1092. DOI: 10.1044/2015_JSLHR-H-14-0263

Lowenstein, J.H. & Nittrouer, S. (2015). All cues are not created equal: The case for facilitating the acquisition of typical weighting strategies in children with hearing loss. J. Speech Lang. Hear Res. 58, 466-480. DOI: 10.1044/2015_JSLHR-H-14-0254

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2014). Dynamic spectral structure specifies vowels for adults and children. Language and Speech 57, 487-512. DOI: 10.1177/0023830913508075

Nittrouer, S., Caldwell-Tarr, A., Sansom, E., Twersky, J. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2014). Nonword repetition in children with cochlear implants: A potential clinical marker of poor language acquisition. Am J Speech Lang Pathol 23, 679-695. DOI: 10.1044/2014_AJSLP-14-0040

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J.H., Wucinich, T., & Tarr, E. (2014). Benefits of preserving stationary and time-varying formant structure in alternative representations of speech: Implications for cochlear implants. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 1845-1856. DOI: 10.1121/1.4895698

Nittrouer, S., Caldwell-Tarr, A., Moberly, A.C., & Lowenstein, J.H. (2014). Perceptual weighting strategies of children with cochlear implants and normal hearing. J Comm Disord 52, 111-133. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2014.09.003

Nittrouer, S., Sansom, E., Low, K., Rice, C., & Caldwell-Tarr, A., (2014). Language Structures Used by Kindergartners with Cochlear Implants: Relationship to Phonological Awareness, Lexical Knowledge and Hearing Loss. Ear & Hearing, 35, 506-518. DOI: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000000051.

Moberly, A.C., Lowenstein, J.H., Tarr, E., Caldwell-Tarr, A., Welling, D.B., Shahin, A.J., & Nittrouer, S. (2014). Do adults with cochlear implants rely on different acoustic cues for phoneme perception than adults with normal hearing? J. Speech Lang. Hear Res. 57, 566-582. DOI: 10.1044/2014_JSLHR-H-12-0323.

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2014). Separating the effects of acoustic and phonetic factors in linguistic processing with impoverished signals by adults and children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 35, 333-370. DOI:10.1017/S0142716412000410.  

McGowan, R. W., McGowan, R. S., Denny, M., & Nittrouer, S., (2014). A Longitudinal Study of Very Young Children’s Vowel Production Speech Lang Hear Res, 57, 1-15. DOI: 10.1044/1092-4388(2013/12-0112)

Nittrouer, S., Tarr, E., Bolster, V., Caldwell-Tarr, A., Moberly, A.C., & Lowenstein, J.H. (2014). Low-frequency signals support perceptual organization of implant-simulated speech for adults and children. Int. J. Audiol., 53, 270-284. DOI: 10.3109/14992027.2013.871649

Moberly, A. C., Welling, D. B., & Nittrouer, S. (2013). Detecting Soft Failures in Pediatric Cochlear Implants: Relating Behavior to Language Outcomes. Otology & Neurotology 34, 1648-1655. DOI: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3182a0036c

Nittrouer, S., Caldwell-Tarr, A., & Lowenstein, J.H. (2013). Working memory in children with cochlear implants: Problems are in storage, not processing. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 77, 1886-1898. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2013.09.001

Nittrouer, S., Caldwell-Tarr, A., Tarr, E., Lowenstein, J.H., Rice, C., & Moberly, A.C. (2013). Improving speech-in-noise recognition for children with hearing loss: Potential effects of language abilities, binaural summation, and head shadow. Int J Audiol 52, 513-525. DOI: 10.3109/14992027.2013.792957.  

Tarr, E. & Nittrouer, S. (2013). Explaining coherence in coherence masking protection for adults and children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 4218-4231. DOI: 10.1121/1.4802638.

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2013). Perceptual organization of speech signals by children with and without dyslexia. Res. Dev. Disabil., 34, 2304-2325. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.04.018.

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J.H. & Tarr, E. (2013). Amplitude rise time does not cue the / bɑ/-wɑ/ contrast for adults or children. J. Speech Lang. Hear Res., 56, 427-440. DOI:10.1044/1092-4388(2012/12-0075)

Caldwell, A. & Nittrouer, S. (2013). Speech perception in noise by children with cochlear implants. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 56, 13-30. DOI: 10.1044/1092-4388(2012/11-0338).

Lowenstein, J.H., Nittrouer, S. & Tarr, E. (2012). Children weight dynamic spectral structure more than adults: Evidence from equivalent signals. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, EL443-EL449. DOI: 10.1121/1.4763554

Nittrouer, S., Caldwell, A., Lowenstein, J., Tarr, E. & Holloman, C.(2012). Emergent literacy in kindergartners with cochlear implants. Ear & Hearing 33 (6), 683-697. DOI: 10.1097/AUD.0b013e318258c98e

Nittrouer, S. (2012). A New Perspective on Developmental Language Problems: Perceptual Organization Deficits. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 19, 87-97. DOI: 10.1044/lle19.3.87

Nittrouer, S., Caldwell, A. & Holloman, C.(2012). Measuring what matters: Effectively predicting language and literacy in children with cochlear implants. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhi. 76 (8), 1148-1158. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.04.024

Tarr, E. & Nittrouer, S. (2011). Coherence masking protection for mid-frequency formants by adults and children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 130, EL290-EL296. DOI: 10.1121/1.3638223

Nittrouer, S. & Tarr, E. (2011). Coherence masking protection for speech signals in children and adults. Atten. Percept. Psychophys., 73, 2606-2623. DOI:10.3758/s13414-011-0210-y

Phinney-Johnson, E., Pennington, B.F., Lowenstein, J.H., & Nittrouer, S. (2011). Sensitivity to structure in the speech signal by children with speech sound disorder and reading disability. J. Comm. Disord., 44, 294-314. DOI:10.1016/j.jcomdis.2011.01.001

Nittrouer, S., Shune, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2011). What is the deficit in phonological processing deficits: Auditory sensitivity, masking, or category formation. J. Exp. Child. Psychol., 108, 762-785. DOI:10.1016/j.jecp.2010.10.012

Nittrouer, S. (2010). Early Development of Children with Hearing Loss. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing.

Nittrouer, S. & Pennington, B.F. (2010). New approaches to the study of childhood language disorders. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci., 19, 308-313. DOI: 10.1177/0963721410383976.

Nittrouer, S. & Lowenstein, J.H. (2010). Learning to perceptually organize speech signals in native fashion. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 127, 1624-1635. DOI: 10.1121/1.3298435

Nittrouer, S. & Chapman, C.(2009). The Effects of Bilateral Electric and Bimodal Electric-Acoustic Stimulation on Language Development. Trends in Amplif. 13 (3), 190-205. DOI: 10.1177/1084713809346160

Nittrouer, S., Lowenstein, J.H., and Packer, R.R. (2009). Children discover the spectral skeletons in their native language before the amplitude envelopes. J. Exper. Psychol.: Human Percep. and Perf., 35, 1245-1253. DOI: 10.1037/a0015020.

Nittrouer, S. and Lowenstein, J.H. (2009). Does harmonicity explain children’s cue weighting of fricative-vowel syllables? J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 125, 1679-1692. DOI: 10.1121/1.3056561.

Lowenstein, J.H., and Nittrouer, S. (2008). Patterns of acquisition of native voice onset time in English-learning children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 124, 1180-1191. DOI: 10.1121/1.2945118

McGowan, R., Nittrouer, S. & Chenausky, K.(2008). Speech Production in 12-Month-Old Children With and Without Hearing Loss. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 51., 879-888. DOI: 10.1044/1092-4388(2008/064)

Nittrouer, S., and Lowenstein, J.H. (2008). Spectral structure across the syllable specifies final-stop voicing for adults and children alike. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 123, 377-385. DOI: 10.1121/1.2804950

Nittrouer, S., and Lowenstein, J.H. (2007). Children’s weighting strategies for word-final stop voicing are not explained by auditory capacities. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res, 50, 58-73. DOI: 10.1044/1092-4388(2007/005)

Nittrouer, S. (2006) Children hear the forest. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 120, 1799-1802. DOI: 10.1121/1.2335273.

Nittrouer, S. (2005). Age-related differences in weighting and masking of two cues to word-final stop voicing in noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 118, 1072-1088. DOI: 10.1121/1.1940508.

Nittrouer, S., Estee, S., Lowenstein, J.H., & Smith, J. (2005). The emergence of mature gestural patterns in the production of voiceless and voiced word-final stops. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 117, 351-364. DOI: 10.1121/1.1828474

Nittrouer, S. & Burton, L. (2005). The role of early language experience in the development of speech perception and phonological processing abilities: Evidence from 5-year-olds with histories of otitis media with effusion and low socioeconomic status. J. Comm. Dis., 38, 29-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2004.03.006

Nittrouer, S. (2004). The role of temporal and dynamic signal components in the perception of syllable-final stop voicing by children and adults. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 115, 1777-1790. DOI: 10.1121/1.1651192

McGowan, R.S., Nittrouer, S., & Manning, C. (2004). Development of [ɹ] in young, Midwestern, American children. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 871-884. DOI: 10.1121/1.1642624

Nittrouer, S. & Burton, L. (2002) The role of early language experience in the development of speech perception and language processing abilities in children with hearing loss. Volta Review 103, 5-37. 

Nittrouer, S. (2002). From ear to cortex: A perspective on what clinicians need to understand about speech perception and language processing. Lang., Speech, and Hear. Services in Schools 33, 237-251. DOI: 10.1044/0161-1461(2002/020).

Nittrouer, S. (2002). Learning to perceive speech: How fricative perception changes, and how it stays the same. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 711-719. DOI: 10.1121/1.1496082

Nittrouer, S, & Crowther, C.S. (2001). Coherence in children’s speech perception. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 2129-2140. DOI: 10.1121/1.1404974.

Nittrouer, S. (2001) Challenging the notion of innate phonetic boundaries. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 1581-1597. DOI: 10.1121/1.1379078

Nittrouer, S., Miller, M.E., Crowther, C.S. & Manhart, M.J. (2000). The effect of segmental order on fricative labeling by children and adults. Percept. Psychophys. 62, 266-284. DOI: 10.3758/bf03205548

Nittrouer, S. & Miller, M.E. (1999). The development of phonemic coding strategies for serial recall. Appl. Psycholing. 20, 563-588. DOI: 10.1017/S0142716499004051.  

Nittrouer, S. (1999). Do temporal processing deficits cause phonological processing problems? J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 42, 925-942. DOI: 10.1044/jslhr.4204.925.